Appendix: Glossary

This databook has been designed for a range of audiences with those unfamiliar with statistics foremost in mind. However some readers may want some additional information on the statistical terms used. The ABS provides a variety of tools and resources to assist understanding, interpretation and evaluation of statistical information. This information can be found at Australian Bureau of Statistics: Understanding statistics.

Aboriginal The definition of Aboriginality varies by collection. The reader should refer to individual collections to obtain the relevant definition.

Apprehended Domestic Violence Order (ADVO) An ADVO is an order made by a court restricting the behaviour of the person it is made against. An ADVO can only be taken out against a family member, spouse or someone who the applicant is in an intimate relationship with.

Australian standard geographical classification (ASGC) The ABS developed the ASGC for the collection and dissemination of geographic statistics. The ASGC areas used for the census are: Collection District (CD); Statistical Local Area (SLA); Local Government Area (LGA); Statistical Subdivision (SSD); and Statistical Division (SD).

Criminal incident A criminal incident is defined as an activity detected by or reported to police which: involved the same offender(s); involved the same victim(s); occurred at the one location; occurred during one uninterrupted period of time; falls into one offence category; and falls into one incident type (for example, ‘actual’, ‘attempted’, ‘conspiracy’). Police action can include proceeding against an alleged offender to court, or diverting them away from the court, such as issuing a caution, infringement notice or Youth Justice Conference. Excluded are warnings.

Directly standardised mortality rate has been standardised against the 2001 Australian population age profile to enable comparisons across this period, while accounting for possible shifts in the age profile of children and young people.

Disability A person has a disability if they report that they have a limitation, restriction or impairment, which has lasted, or is likely to last, for at least six months and restricts everyday activities. Disability categories include:

  • sensory disability, including loss of sight or hearing, or speech difficulties
  • intellectual disability, including difficulty learning or understanding things
  • physical disability, including breathing difficulties that restrict everyday activities, blackouts, fits or loss of consciousness, chronic or recurrent pain that restricts everyday activities, incomplete use of arms, or fingers, incomplete use of feet or legs
  • psychological disability, including nervous or emotional conditions that restricts everyday activities, mental illness or conditions requiring help or supervision, head injury, stroke or other brain damage, with long-term effects that restrict everyday activities.

Diseases and morbid conditions Natural causes of death that generally result from disease. Examples include asthma, pneumonia and leukaemia.

Early childhood Children aged between five and eight years of age.

External cause External causes of death are those external to the body. Examples include suicide, transport incidents, drowning, assaults and poisoning.

Formal child care is regulated and provided by a person other than a child’s parent or guardian, outside of the child’s home; for example, centre-based long day care, family day care, outside school hours care and occasional care.

Gestational age Measured from the first day of the mother’s last normal menstrual period to the date of birth and expressed in completed weeks.

Healthy family functioning Families are assessed as having healthy family functioning if they score 2.17 or above on the McMasters 12 item general functioning scale. The scale asks parents to answer the following questions about their family:

  • planning family activities is difficult because we misunderstand each other
  • in times of crisis we can turn to each other for support
  • we cannot talk to each other about sadness we feel
  • individuals in the family are accepted for who they are
  • we avoid discussing our fears and concerns
  • we express feelings to each other
  • there are lots of bad feelings in our family
  • we feel accepted for who we are
  • making decisions is a problem in our family
  • we are able to make decisions about how to solve problems
  • we don't get on well together
  • we confide in each other
  • you ever felt the need for any type of support service to assist with caring for a child or dealing with problems you may have experienced with a child?
  • you ever used any support services?

Hospital separations occur anytime a patient leaves because of death, discharge, sign-out against medical advice or transfer.

Incident rate ratio (IRR) The ratio of the incident rates, in this report mortality rates, of two groups where the denominator is the rate for the comparison group. An IRR of one indicates that there is no difference in rates between the two groups being compared. A value greater than one indicates a greater risk for the group being compared; a value less than one indicates a lesser risk.

Infant Children under one year of age.

Informal care is non-regulated care arranged by a child’s parent and/or guardian. It includes privately provided care, for example, by friends, relatives or nannies, for which there is no government assistance.

Inner regions A category of geographic remoteness in ARIA. Examples of SLAs coded as inner regions include Hawkesbury, Lake Macquarie, Maitland, Tamworth, Lismore, Albury, Wagga Wagga and Ballina.

Live birth The complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a baby that is at least 400 grams or 20 weeks gestation who, after being born, breathes or shows any evidence of life such as a heartbeat.

Least disadvantaged The definition of least disadvantaged varies by collection. The reader should refer to individual collections to obtain the relevant definition.

Major cities A category of geographic remoteness in ARIA. Examples of SLAs coded as major cities include most capital cities, and major urban areas such as Queanbeyan and Newcastle.

Middle childhood Children aged between nine and fourteen years of age. Also known as the middle years of childhood.

Migration streams The family stream is for migrants sponsored by family who are permanent residents in Australia; the humanitarian stream is for refugees or others with humanitarian needs; and the skilled stream is for those migrating to Australia for work.

Most disadvantaged The definition of most disadvantaged varies by collection. The reader should refer to individual collections to obtain the relevant definition.

Out-of-home care Care provided to children who cannot live safely in their home. They may live with relatives, foster carers, in residential care or independently.

Perinatal death A stillbirth or neonatal death.

Post-neonatal An infant aged from 28 to 365 days old.

Principal penalty A principal penalty is the most serious penalty imposed on the child by the court.

Rate A rate is the total number of the information of interest divided by the population. Information in usually reported per 1,000 children in NSW.

Remote regions A category of geographic remoteness in ARIA. Examples of SLAs coded as remote include Balranald, Warren, Walgett, Hay and Moree Plains.

Statistical Division (SD) An Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) defined area which represents a large, general-purpose, regional-type geographic area. The SD is the largest and most stable spatial unit within each state and territory. SDs represent relatively homogeneous regions characterised by identifiable social and economic links between the inhabitants and between the economic units within the region, under the unifying influence of one or more major towns or cities. They consist of one or more Statistical Subdivisions (SSDs) and cover, in aggregate, the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. SDs aggregate to form states and territories.

The SDs in NSW correspond to proclaimed government regions, except for the North Coast region, which includes the SDs of Richmond–Tweed and Mid-North Coast. These regions were delimited to maximise the degree of socioeconomic interactions within each region. SD names tend to indicate their generalised area, for example the ‘Northern’ SD in NSW includes the SSDs of Tamworth, Northern Slopes, Northern Tablelands and the North Central Plain.

Statistical Subdivision (SSD) The Statistical Subdivision (SSD) is an Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) defined area which represents an intermediate level, general-purpose, regional-type geographic unit. SSDs consist of one or more Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) and cover, in aggregate, the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. SSDs are defined as socially and economically homogeneous regions characterised by identifiable links between the inhabitants. Where possible, SSD boundaries embrace adjoining whole LGAs. However, in some cases an SSD boundary may split the LGA into parts; they are then included into the relevant SSD.

Teenager Children aged between fifteen and seventeen years of age.

Unsentenced detention Unsentenced detention refers to children aged 10–17 years who have not been sentenced, regardless of whether they have been placed in detention following a police referral or a court referral (remand).

Vaccine preventable diseases can be avoided through vaccination. They include measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, poliomyelitis, tetanus, mumps and rubella.

Very remote regions A category of geographic remoteness in ARIA. Examples of SLAs coded as very remote include Bourke, Lord Howe Island, Brewarrina and Cobar.